1. Significant accounting policies
1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements A Statement of compliance
These financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.
B Functional and presentation currency
The financial statements are presented in INR in crores, rounded off to two decimal places, except when otherwise indicated.
C Basis of measurement
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost convention basis, except for certain financial instruments (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments), which are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.
Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services as at the date of respective transactions.
2.2 Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions. These estimates, judgments and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Application of accounting policies that require critical accounting estimates involving complex and subjective judgments and the use of assumptions in these financial statements have been disclosed in Note 2.3. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
2.3 Critical accounting estimates and judgements
a. Project revenue and costs
The Company uses the percentage-of-completion method in accounting for its fixed-price contracts. Use of the percentage-of-completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts or costs expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts or costs to be expended. Efforts or costs expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the expected contract estimates at the reporting date.
b. Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset’s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company’s assets are determined by management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology.
c. Employee benefits
The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date. The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate for plans operated in India, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation. The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rate and past trends. Further details about gratuity obligations are given in Note 34.
d. Provision for litigations and contingencies
The provision for litigations and contingencies are determined based on evaluation made by the management of the present obligation arising from past events the settlement of which is expected to result in outflow of resources embodying economic benefits, which involves judgements around estimating the ultimate outcome of such past events and measurement of the obligation amount. Due to the judgements involved in such estimations the provisions are sensitive to the actual outcome in future periods.
Information about judgments made in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effects on the amounts recognised in the financial statements is included in the following notes
- Note 40 - leases: whether an arrangement contains a lease; and
- Note 40 - lease classification.
2.4 Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
- All other assets are classified as non-current
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
- The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current
- Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
2.5 Foreign Currency
The functional currency of the company is the Indian Rupee.
Transactions and translations
Initial recognition transactions in foreign currencies are recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Nonmonetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the transaction.
Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expense and cash flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.
2.6 Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.
Revenue are stated exclusive of goods and service tax and net of trade and quantity discount.
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.
In case of large transformers, revenue is recognized on achievement of contractual milestone. Revenue recognized in excess of billing has been reflected under “Other financial assets” as unbilled revenue.
Revenues from long-term contracts are recognized on the percentage of completion method, in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected under “Other financial assets” and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected under “Other current liabilities” in the balance sheet. Full provision is made for any loss in the year in which it is first foreseen.
Liquidated damages / penalties are provided for as per the contract terms wherever there is a delayed delivery attributable to the Company.
Revenue from the development services is recognised as per the contract terms and when accrued. When the contract outcome cannot be measured reliably, revenue is recognised only to the extent that the expenses incurred are eligible to be recovered.
Commission income is recognized as per contract terms and when accrued.
Dividend income is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis.
2.7 Income Taxes
Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
2.8 Property, plant and equipment
On transition to Ind-AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment recognised as at 1st January, 2016 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as a deemed cost of property, plant and equipment.
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied.
All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred. The Company identifies and determines cost of each component/ part of Property, plant and equipment separately, if the component/ part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of the Property, plant and equipment and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset. Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each balance sheet date is classified as capital advances and cost of assets not ready for use at the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work- in- progress.
The Company depreciates property, plant and equipment over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives of assets are as follows:
Useful lives estimated by the management in years:
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end.
2.9 Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred. The estimated useful life of assets are as follows:
The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.
Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.
Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. When acquired, such assets are capitalized at fair value or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Lease payments under operating leases are charged to statement of profit and loss on straight line basis over the period of the lease, unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.
2.11 Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of various categories of inventories is arrived at as follows:
Stores, spares, raw materials, components and traded goods - at rates determined on the moving weighted average method.
Goods in Transit - at actual cost.
Work-in-progress and finished goods - at full absorption cost method which includes direct materials, direct labour and manufacturing overheads. Cost is determined on weighted average method.
Provision for obsolescence is made wherever necessary.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
a. Financial assets
Financial assets (other than at fair value) The Company assesses at each date of balance sheet whether a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. Ind AS 109 (‘Financial Instruments’) requires expected credit losses to be measured through a loss allowance. The Company recognises lifetime expected losses for all contract assets and / or all trade receivables that do not constitute a financing transaction. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month expected credit losses or at an amount equal to the life time expected credit losses if the credit risk on the financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition. The Company provides for impairment upon the occurrence of the triggering event.
b. Non-financial assets Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs.
If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset. An impairment loss is reversed in the statement of profit and loss if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The carrying amount of the asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
2.14 Cash flow statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit for the period is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.
2.15 Other income
Other income is comprised primarily of interest income. Interest income is recognized using the effective interest method.
2.16 Provisions & Contingent liability
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that is reasonably estimable, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of time value of money is material, Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.
Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognised when the product is sold to the customer. Initial recognition is based on historical experience. The initial estimate of warranty-related costs is revised annually.
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
2.17 Financial instruments
2.17.1 Initial recognition
The Company recognizes financial assets and financial liabilities when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets and liabilities are recognized at fair value on initial recognition, except for trade receivables which are initially measured at transaction price. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities, that are not at fair value through profit or loss, are added to the fair value on initial recognition.
2.17.2 Subsequent measurement
a. Non-derivative financial instruments
(i) Financial assets carried at amortised cost
A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business where the objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
(ii) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income
A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business where the objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. The Company has made an irrevocable election for its investments which are classified as equity instruments to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income based on its business model. Further, in cases where the Company has made an irrevocable election based on its business model, for its investments which are classified as equity instruments, the subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income.
(iii) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit or loss.
(iv) Financial liabilities
Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.
A financial asset is primarily derecognised when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement^ and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
b. Derivative financial instruments
The company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank.
Financial assets or financial liabilities, at fair value through profit or loss.
This category has derivative financial assets or liabilities which are not designated as hedges.
Although the company believes that these derivatives constitute hedges from an economic perspective, they may not qualify for hedge accounting under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments. Any derivative that is either not designated a hedge, or is so designated but is ineffective as per Ind AS 109, is categorized as a financial asset or financial liability, at fair value through profit or loss.
Derivatives not designated as hedges are recognized initially at fair value and attributable transaction costs are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. when incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, these derivatives are measured at fair value through profit or loss and the resulting exchange gains or losses are included in other income/expenses. Assets/ liabilities in this category are presented as current assets/current liabilities if they are either held for trading or are expected to be realized within 12 months after the balance sheet date.
Certain commercial contracts may grant rights to the Company or the counterparties, or contain other provisions that are considered to be derivatives. Such embedded derivatives are assessed at inception of the contract and depending on their characteristics, accounted for as separate derivative instruments and shown at their fair value in the balance sheet with changes in their fair value recognized through profit or loss.
2.18 Fair value of financial instruments
Fair value hierarchy:
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1—Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
2.19 Earnings per share
Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the equity shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding equity shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.
2.20 Employee benefits
2.20.1 Gratuity & Provident Fund - Defined benefit plans
The present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method. In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognize the obligation on a net basis.
Incase of defined benefit plans, remeasurement comprising of actuarial gains and losses is recognized in other comprehensive income (OCI) and is reflected in retained earnings and is not eligible to be reclassified to profit or loss.
The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in statement of profit and loss:
- Service cost including current service cost, past service cost and gains and losses on curtailments and settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income.
Provident fund has been considered as a defined benefit plan since any additional obligations on account of investment risk and interest rate risk are required to be met by the Company.
2.20.2 Superannuation - Defined contribution scheme
Contribution to Superannuation Fund, is made at pre-determined rates to the Superannuation Fund Trust and is charged to the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related services. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust.
2.20.3 Compensated absences
Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilised within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefits. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company presents the entire accumulated leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.
2.20.4 Share based compensation
The company recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based payments in net profit using fair-value in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-Based Payment. The estimated fair value of awards is charged to income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was in-substance, multiple awards with a corresponding increase to share options outstanding account.
The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value at the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model.
That cost is recognised, together with a corresponding increase in share-based payment (SBP) reserves in equity, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled in employee benefits expense. The cumulative expense recognised for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The expense or credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognised as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognised in employee benefits expense.
2.21 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cheque at hand / remittance in transit and cash and deposit with bank.
2.22 Operating cycle
A portion of the Company’s activities (primarily long-term project activities) has an operating cycle that exceeds one year. Accordingly, assets and liabilities related to these long-term contracts, which will not be realized/paid within one year, have been classified as current. For all other activities, the operating cycle is twelve months.
2.23 Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets (including disposal groups) are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and a sale is considered highly probable.
Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at lower of their carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell.
Non-current assets classified as held for sale are not depreciated or amortised from the date when they are classified as held for sale.
An impairment loss is recognized for any initial or subsequent write-down of the asset (or disposal group) to fair value less costs to sell. A gain is recognized for any subsequent increases in fair value less costs to sell of an asset (or disposal group), but not in excess of any cumulative impairment loss previously recognized. A gain or loss not previously recognized by the date of the sale of the non-current asset (or disposal group) is recognized at the date of de-recognition.
Non-current assets classified as held for sale and the assets and liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from the other assets and liabilities in the balance sheet. A discontinued operation is a component of the entity that has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and:
(a) represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations and;
(b) is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of such a line of business or area of operations. The results of discontinued operations are presented separately in the statement of profit and loss.
2.24 Recent Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)
Following new standard and amendment to Ind AS have not been applied by the Company as they are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019:
Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers Ind AS 21 The effect of changes in Foreign Exchange rates
Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
‘In March 2018, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018, notifying Ind AS 115 ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ (New Revenue Standard), which replaces Ind AS 11 ‘Construction Contracts’ and Ind AS 18‘Revenue’. The core principle of the New Revenue Standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Some of the key changes introduced by the New Revenue Standard include additional guidance for multiple-element arrangements, measurement approaches for variable consideration, specific guidance for licensing of intellectual property. The new standard also provides guidance on evaluation of performance obligations being distinct to enable separate recognition and could impact timing of recognition of certain elements of multiple element arrangements.
Significant additional disclosures in relation to revenue are also prescribed. The New Revenue Standard also provides two broad alternative transition options - Retrospective Method and Cumulative Effect Method - with certain practical expedients available under the Retrospective Method. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of the New Revenue Standard on the present and future arrangements and shall determine the appropriate transition option once the said evaluation has been completed.
Ind AS 21 - The effect of changes in Foreign Exchange rates
The amendment clarifies on the accounting of transactions that include the receipt or payment of advance consideration in a foreign currency. The appendix explains that the date of the transaction, for the purpose of determining the exchange rate, is the date of initial recognition of the non-monetary prepayment asset or deferred income liability. If there are multiple payments or receipts in advance, a date of transaction is established for each payment or receipt. The Company is evaluating the impact of this amendment on its financial statements.