1.1 Statement of Compliance:
These financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, as amended from time to time as notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”) and the guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), as applicable.
The financial statements are authorised for issue by the Board of Directors of the Company at their meeting held on 24th May 2019.
1.2 Basis of Preparation:
The financial statements have been prepared and presented on the going concern basis and at historical cost, except for the following assets and liabilities, which have been measured as indicated below:
- Derivative Financial Instruments at fair value (covered under para 1.20)
- Certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value [refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments (covered under para 1.22)]
- Assets held for disposal-measured at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell; and
- Employee’s Defined Benefit Plans measured as per actuarial valuation.
- Employee Stock Option Plans measured at fair value.
- Assets and Liabilities acquired under Business Combination measured at fair value.
1.3 Functional and Presentation Currency:
The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees, which is the functional currency of the Company and the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates, and all values are rounded to the nearest Crore, except as otherwise indicated.
1.4 Business Combination and Goodwill/Capital Reserve:
The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The acquisition date is the date on which control is transferred to the acquirer. Judgement is applied in determining the acquisition date and determining whether control is transferred from one party to another. Control exists when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through power over the entity. In assessing control, potential voting rights are considered only if the rights are substantive.
Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interests, and any previous interest held, over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of the net assets acquired is in excess of the aggregate consideration transferred, the Company re-assesses whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and reviews the procedures used to measure the amounts to be recognised at the acquisition date. If the re-assessment still results in an excess of the fair value of net assets acquired over the aggregate consideration transferred, then the gain is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income (OCI) and accumulated in other equity as capital reserve. However, if there is no clear evidence of bargain purchase, the entity recognises the gain directly in other equity as capital reserve, without routing the same through OCI.
Consideration transferred includes the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred by the Company to the previous owners of the acquiree, and equity interests issued by the Company. Consideration transferred also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Any goodwill that arises on account of such business combination is tested annually for impairment.
Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not re-measured and the settlement is accounted for within other equity. Otherwise, other contingent consideration is re-measured at fair value at each reporting date and subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
A contingent liability of the acquiree is assumed in a business combination only if such a liability represents a present obligation and arises from a past event, and its fair value can be measured reliably. On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Company recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Transaction costs that the Company incurs in connection with a business combination, such as Stamp Duty for title transfer in the name of the Company, finder’s fees, legal fees, due diligence fees and other professional and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.
1.5 Classification of Assets and Liabilities as Current and Non-Current:
All assets and liabilities are classified as current or non-current as per the Company’s normal operating cycle, and other criteria set out in Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time lag between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, 12 month period has been considered by the Company as its normal operating cycle.
1.6 Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE):
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property plant and equipment recognized as at 1st April 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.
Property, plant and equipment are stated at acquisition or construction cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its location and working condition for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs and any expected costs of de-commissioning.
If significant parts of an item of PPE have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of PPE.
The cost of an item of PPE is recognised as an asset if, and only if, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company in future periods and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. Expenditure incurred after the PPE have been put into operations, such as repairs and maintenance expenses, are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which they are incurred.
Items such as spare parts, standby equipment and servicing equipment are recognised as PPE when these are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purpose, and are expected to be used for more than one year. Otherwise, such items are classified as inventory.
An item of PPE is de-recognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the assets. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of PPE, is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Capital work-in-progress includes cost of property, plant and equipment under installation/under development as at the reporting date.
1.7 Treatment of Expenditure during Construction Period:
Expenditure, net of income earned, during construction (including financing cost related to borrowed funds for construction or acquisition of qualifying PPE) period is included under capital work-in-progress, and the same is allocated to the respective PPE on the completion of construction. Advances given towards acquisition or construction of PPE outstanding at each reporting date are disclosed as Capital Advances under “Other Non-Current Assets”
Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life and is provided on a straight-line basis, except for Viscose Staple Fibre Division (excluding Power Plants), Nagda, and Corporate Finance Division, Mumbai for which it is provided on written down value method, over the useful lives as prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, or as per technical assessment.
Depreciable amount for PPE is the cost of PPE less its estimated residual value. The useful life of PPE is the period over which PPE is expected to be available for use by the Company, or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the Company.
The Company has used the following useful lives of the property, plant and equipment to provide depreciation.
A. Major assets class where useful life considered as provided in Schedule II:
In case of certain class of assets, the Company uses different useful life than those prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.The useful life has been assessed based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset on the basis of the management’s best estimation of getting economic benefits from those classes of assets. The Company uses its technical expertise along with historical and industry trends for arriving at the economic life of an asset.
Also, useful life of the part of PPE which is significant to the total cost of PPE, has been separately assessed and depreciation has been provided accordingly.
B. Assets where useful life differs from Schedule II:
The estimated useful lives, residual values and the depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
Continuous process plant, as defined in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, have been classified on the basis of technical assessment and depreciation is provided accordingly.
Depreciation on additions is provided on a pro-rata basis from the month of installation or acquisition, and in case of a new Project, from the date of commencement of commercial production. Depreciation on deductions/disposals is provided on a pro-rata basis up to the month preceding the month of deduction/disposal.
1.9 Intangible Assets acquired separately and Amortisation:
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its Intangible Assets recognized as at 1 April 2015, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the Intangible Assets.
Intangible assets, acquired separately, are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset. Intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.
Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is de-recognised.
Intangible Assets and their useful lives are as under:
1.10 Internally Generated Intangible Assets - Research and Development Expenditure:
Revenue expenditure on research is expensed under the respective heads of the account in the period in which it is incurred. Development expenditure is capitalized as an asset, if the following conditions can be demonstrated:
a) The technical feasibility of completing the asset so that it can be made available for use or sell.
b) The Company has intention to complete the asset and use or sell it.
c) In case of intention to sell, the Company has the ability to sell the asset.
d) The future economic benefits are probable.
e) The Company has ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the asset during its development reliably.
Other development costs, which do not meet the above criteria, are expensed out during the period in which they are incurred.
PPE procured for research and development activities are capitalised.
1.11 Non-Current Assets Classified as Held for Disposal:
Assets are classified as held for disposal and stated at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.
To classify any Asset as “Asset Held for Disposal” the asset must be available for immediate sale and its sale must be highly probable. Such assets or group of assets are presented separately in the Balance Sheet, in the line “Assets Held for Disposal” Once classified as held for disposal, intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are no longer amortised or depreciated.
The management must be committed to the sale/ distribution expected within one year from the date of classification.
1.12 Impairment of Non-Financial Assets:
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of non-financial assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units, for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication then the asset may be impaired.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset, for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation decrease.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal of the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation increase.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Raw materials, stores and spare parts, and packing materials are considered to be realisable at cost, if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost. The cost is computed on weighted-average basis which includes expenditure incurred for acquiring inventories like purchase price, import duties, taxes (net of tax credit) and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of conversion based on normal capacity and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The cost of finished goods and work-in-progress is computed on weighted-average basis.
In the absence of cost, waste/scrap is valued at estimated net realisable value.
Obsolete, defective, slow moving and unserviceable inventories, if any, are duly provided for.
Proceeds in respect of sale of raw materials/stores are credited to the respective heads.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset, or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset, or assets even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
As a Lessee:
Leases, where substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item are transferred to the Lessee, are classified as finance lease. The assets acquired under finance lease are capitalised at lower of fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease and disclosed as leased assets. Such assets are amortised over the period of lease or estimated life of such asset, whichever is less. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on implicit rate of return. Lease management fees, lease charges and other initial direct costs are capitalised.
As a Lessee:
Leases, where significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor, are classified as operating leases and lease rentals thereon are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless the lease agreement explicitly states that the increase is on account of inflation.
As a Lessor:
The Company has leased certain tangible assets, and such leases, where the Company has substantially retained all the risks and rewards of ownership, are classified as operating leases. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over lease term, unless the lease agreement explicitly states that the increase is on account of inflation.
1.15 Cash and Cash Equivalents:
Cash and Cash Equivalents comprise cash on hand and cash at banks, including fixed deposit with original maturity period of three months or less and short-term highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less.
1.16 Cash Flow Statement:
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby the net profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows.The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.
1.17 Employee Benefits:
Short-Term Employee Benefits:
Short-term employee benefits are recognised as an expense on accrual basis.
Defined Contribution Plans:
Contribution payable to the recognised provident fund and approved superannuation scheme, which are substantially defined contribution plans, is recognised as expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, when employees have rendered the service entitling them to the contribution.
The provident fund contribution as specified under the law is paid to the Regional Provident Fund Commissioner.
Defined Benefit Plans:
The obligation in respect of defined benefit plans, which covers Gratuity, Pension and other post-employment medical benefits, are provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation at the end of each financial year using project unit credit method. Gratuity is funded with an approved trust.
In respect of certain employees, Provident Fund contributions are made to a Trust, administered by the Company. The interest rate payable to the members of the Trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the Central Government under the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, and shortfall, if any, shall be made good by the Company. The Company’s liability is actuarially determined (using the Projected Unit Credit Method) at the end of the year, and any shortfall in the Fund size maintained by the Trust set-up by the Company is additionally provided for.
Re-measurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the Balance Sheet with a charge or credit recognised in Other Comprehensive Income in the period in which they occur.
Re-measurement recognised in Other Comprehensive Income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to profit or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:
- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);
- net interest expense or income; and
The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the line item ‘Employee Benefits Expense’.
The present value of the Defined Benefit Plan liability is calculated using a discount rate, which is determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds.
The retirement benefit obligation, recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in the future contribution to the plans.
Other Long-Term Benefits:
Long-term compensated absences are provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation at the end of each financial year. Actuarial gains/losses, if any, are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
1.18 Employee Share Based Payments:
Equity-settled share-based payments to employees are measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date using Black-Scholes Model and Binomial Model.
The fair value, determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments, is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the vesting period of the option, based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in other equity.
In case of forfeiture/lapse stock option, which is not vested, amortised portion is reversed by credit to employee compensation expense. In a situation where the stock option expires unexercised, the related balance standing to the credit of the Employee Stock Options Outstanding Account is transferred within other equity.
The cost of cash-settled transactions is measured initially at fair value at the grant date using a Black-Scholes Merton Formula. This fair value is expensed over the period until the vesting date with recognition of a corresponding liability. The liability is re-measured to fair value at each reporting date up to, and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognised in employee benefits expense.
1.19 Treasury Shares:
The Company has created an Employee Benefit Trust (EBT) for providing share-based payment to its employees. The Company uses EBT as a vehicle for distributing shares to employees under the Employee Stock Option Scheme. The EBT purchase shares of the Company from the market, for giving shares to employees. The Company treats EBT as its extension and shares held by EBT are treated as treasury shares.
Own equity instruments that are re-acquired (treasury shares) are recognised at cost and deducted from other equity. No gain or loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the company’s own equity instruments. Any difference between the carrying amount and the consideration, if reissued or sold, is recognised in capital reserve. Share options exercised during the reporting period are settled with treasury shares.
1.20 Foreign Currency Transactions:
I n preparing the financial statements of the Company, transactions in foreign currencies, other than the Company’s functional currency, are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rate prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not re-translated.
Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which these arise except for:
- exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings; and
- exchange differences relation to qualifying effective cash flow hedges.
1.21 Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedge Accounting:
The Company enters into forward contracts to hedge the foreign currency risk of firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in the Statement of Profit and Loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.
The Company enters into derivative financial instruments viz. foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps to manage its exposure to interest rate, foreign exchange rate risks and commodity prices. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.
The Company designates certain hedging instruments in respect of foreign currency risk, interest rate risk and commodity price risk as cash flow hedges. At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes the Company’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/ economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, hedge ratio and how the entity will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows, and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Amounts previously recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in other equity relating to (effective portion as described above) are re-classified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains and losses are transferred from equity and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, without replacement or rollover (as part of the hedging strategy), or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in other equity at that time remains in other equity and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in other equity is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
1.22 Fair Value Measurement:
The Company measures financial instruments, such as investments (other than equity investments in Subsidiaries, Joint Ventures and Associates) and derivatives at fair values at each Balance Sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use, or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities (for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements) are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable other than quoted prices included in Level 1.
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
The management determines the policies and procedures for both recurring fair value measurement, such as derivative instruments and unquoted financial assets measured at fair value, and for non-recurring measurement, such as assets held for disposal in discontinued operations.
At each reporting date, management analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be re-measured or re-assessed as per the Company’s accounting policies. For this analysis, the management verifies the major inputs applied in the latest valuation by agreeing the information in the valuation computation to contracts and other relevant documents.
1.23 Financial Instruments:
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial Recognition and Measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value. However, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset are added to the fair value. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Debt instruments at amortised cost
- Debt instruments at fair value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI)
- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments, mutual funds at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt Instruments at Amortised Cost:
A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR.The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.
Debt Instruments at FVTOCI:
A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:
a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and
b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI on the principal amount outstanding.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognised in the Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss. On de-recognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is re-classified from the equity to Statement of Profit and Loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.
Debt Instruments at FVTPL:
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortised cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘Accounting Mismatch’).
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
I nvestment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint ventures are out of scope of Ind AS 109 and hence, the Company has accounted for its investment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint venture at cost.
All other equity investments are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For equity instruments other than held for trading, the Company has irrevocable option to present in Other Comprehensive Income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
Where the Company classifies equity instruments as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts of profit or loss from OCI to Statement of Profit and Loss, even on sale of investment.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Impairment of Financial Assets:
Financial assets, other than those at FVTPL, are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. In case of financial assets, the Company follows the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109-Financial Instruments-for recognition of impairment loss allowance.The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk of trade receivable. The Company calculates the expected credit losses on trade receivables using a provision matrix on the basis of its historical credit loss experience.
De-recognition of Financial Assets:
The Company de-recognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises an associated liability.
On de-recognition of a financial asset, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in other equity is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial Liabilities and Equity Instruments:
Classification as Debt or Equity:
Debt and equity instruments, issued by the Company, are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition as fair value through profit or loss:
- Loans and borrowings,
- Payables, or
- as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, are recognised net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial Liabilities at FVTPL:
Financial liabilities at FVTPL include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at FVTPL. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading, if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term.This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading, unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial liabilities, designated upon initial recognition at FVTPL, are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied.
Loans and Borrowings:
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the Effective Interest Rate (EIR) method. Gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the liabilities are de-recognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial Guarantee Contracts:
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs, because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due, in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109, and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.
De-recognition of Financial Liabilities:
The Company de-recognises financial liabilities when and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability de-recognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid (combined) instrument that also includes a nonderivative host contract - with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a standalone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some or all of the cash flows that would otherwise be required by the contract to be modified according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable, that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract. Re-assessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required or a re-classification of a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss. If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109, to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value, if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts, and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss.These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.
Offsetting of Financial Instruments:
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Balance Sheet, if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
1.24 Revenue Recognition:
(a) Revenue from contracts with customers;
- Revenue is recognized on the basis of approved contracts regarding the transfer of goods or services to a customer for an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services.
- Revenue is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable taking into account the amount of discounts, incentives, volume rebates, outgoing taxes on sales. Any amounts receivable from the customer are recognised as revenue after the control over the goods sold are transferred to the customer which is generally on dispatch of goods.
- Variable consideration - This includes incentives, volume rebates, discounts etc. It is estimated at contract inception considering the terms of various schemes with customers and constrained until it is highly probable that a significant revenue reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur when the associated uncertainty with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. It is reassessed at the end of each reporting period.
- Significant financing component - Generally, the Company receives short-term advances from its customers. Using the practical expedient in Ind AS 115, the Company does not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component if it expects, at contract inception, that the period between the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and when the customer pays for that goods or services will be one year or less.
(b) Dividend income is accounted for when the right to receive the income is established.
(c) For all financial instruments measured at amortised cost or at fair value through Other Comprehensive Income, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR), which is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset.
(d) Insurance, railway and other claims, where quantum of accruals cannot be ascertained with reasonable certainty, are accounted on acceptance basis.
1.25 Borrowing Costs:
Borrowing cost includes interest expense, amortisation of discounts, hedge related cost incurred in connection with foreign currency borrowings, ancillary costs incurred in connection with borrowing of funds and exchange difference, arising from foreign currency borrowings, to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.
Borrowing costs, that are attributable to the acquisition or construction or production of a qualifying asset, are capitalised as part of the cost of such asset till such time the asset is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation. All other borrowing costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.
1.26 Government Grants and Subsidies:
Government grants are recognised when there is a reasonable assurance that the same will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss by way of a deduction to the related expense on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis over the expected useful life of the related asset.
Government grants, that are receivable towards capital investments under State Investment Promotion Scheme, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they become receivable.
The benefit of a government loan at a below-market rate of interest is treated as a government grant, measured as the difference between proceeds received and the fair value of the loan based on prevailing market interest rates and is being recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset.
1.27 Exceptional Item:
Exception items include income or expense that are considered to be part of ordinary activities, however, are of such significance and nature that separate disclosure enables the user of the Financial Statements to understand the impact in a more meaningful manner Exceptional items are identified by virtue of either their size or nature so as to facilitate comparison with prior periods and to assess underlying trends in the financial performance of the Company.
1.28 Provision for Current and Deferred Tax:
Current Income Tax:
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities.The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date in the countries where the Company operates and generates taxable income.
Current income tax, relating to items recognised outside of the Statement of Profit and Loss, is recognised outside of the Statement of Profit and Loss (either in Other Comprehensive Income or in other equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in other equity. The management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and established provisions, where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities, and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except:
When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available, against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised, except:
When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date, and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws), that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax, relating to items recognised outside profit or loss, is recognised outside profit or loss (either in Other Comprehensive Income or in other equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in other equity. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities, and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
1.29 Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT):
MAT is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised, it is credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss and is considered as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each Balance Sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) Credit are in the form of unused tax credits that are carried forward by the Company for a specified period of time, hence, it is presented with Deferred Tax Asset.
1.30 Provisions and Contingent Liabilities:
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows to net present value using an appropriate pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
A present obligation that arises from past events, where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made, is disclosed as a contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are also disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.
Claims against the Company, where the possibility of any outflow of resources in settlement is remote, are not disclosed as contingent liabilities.
Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is not a contingent asset and is recognised.
Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the product is sold or service provided to the customer. Initial recognition is based on historical experience. The initial estimate of warranty-related costs is revised annually.
1.31 Earnings Per Share (EPS):
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted-average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted-average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and for all periods presented is adjusted for events such as bonus issue; bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders; share split; and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
1.32 Significant Accounting Judgements, Estimates and Assumptions:
The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with the Ind AS requires judgements, estimates and assumptions to be made, that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities on the date of the financial statements, the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period and the disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Although these estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes different from the estimates. Difference between actual results and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known or materialised. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of asset and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below. The Company based its assumptions and estimates on parameters available when the financial statements were prepared. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising that are beyond the control of the Company. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.
- Litigation and contingencies:
The Company has ongoing litigations with various regulatory authorities. Where an outflow of funds is believed to be probable and a reliable estimate of the outcome of the dispute can be made based on management’s assessment of specific circumstances of each dispute and relevant external advice, the management provides for its best estimate of the liability. Such accruals are by nature complex and can take number of years to resolve and can involve estimation uncertainty. Information about such litigations is provided in notes to the Financial Statements.
- Assessment of Impairment of investments in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures:
The Company reviews its carrying value of investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures annually, or more frequently when there is indication for impairment. If the recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is accounted for. Determining whether the investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures is impaired requires an estimate in the value in use of investments. The management carries out impairment assessment for each investment by comparing the carrying value of each investment with the net worth of each company based on audited financials and comparing the performance of the investee companies with projections used for valuations, in particular those relating to the cash flows, sales growth rate, pre-tax discount rate and growth rates used and approved business plans.
- Useful Lives of Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangible Assets:
The Company uses its technical expertise along with historical and industry trends for determining the economic life of an asset/component of an asset. The useful lives are reviewed by the management periodically and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortised depreciable amount is charged over the remaining useful life of the assets.
- Measurement of Defined Benefit Obligations:
The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future.These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.
- Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets:
Availability of future taxable profit against which the tax losses carried forward can be used.
- Recognition and Measurement of Provisions and Contingencies:
Key assumptions about the likelihood and magnitude of an outflow of resources.
- Fair Value Measurement of Financial Instruments:
When the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the Balance Sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair values are measured using valuation techniques including the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model.The inputs to these models are taken from observable market where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgement is required in establishing fair values. Judgement includes consideration of input such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments.
- Share-based Payments:
The Company measures the cost of equity-settled transactions with employees using Black-Scholes Model to determine the fair value of the liability incurred on the grant date. Estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions requires determination of the most appropriate valuation model, which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant.
This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life of the share option, volatility and dividend yield and making assumptions about them.
The assumptions and models used for estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions are disclosed in Note 4.8
- Business Combination and Goodwill/Capital Reserve:
(a) Fair Valuation of Intangible Assets:
The Company has used income approach (e.g., relief from royalty, multi-period excess earnings method and incremental cash flows, etc.) for value analysis of intangible assets. The method estimates the value of future cash flows over the life of the intangible assets accruing to the Company, by virtue of the transaction. The resulting tax adjusted cash flows for each of the years are recognised at their present value using a Weighted-Average Cost of Capital (‘WACC’) relating to the risk of achieving the intangible assets projected savings.
(b) Fair Valuation of Tangible Assets:
Freehold land is fair valued using the sales comparison method using prevailing rates of similar plots of land, circle rates provided by relevant regulatory authorities and other acceptable valuation techniques.
Leasehold land is valued basis the leasehold interest for the remaining duration of the lease. Other Assets:
The cost approach has been adopted for fair valuing all the assets, The cost approach includes calculation of replacement cost using price trends applied to historical cost and capitalisation of all the indirect cost, these trends are on the basis of price indices obtained from recognised sources.
(c) Fair Valuation of Loans:
The fair value of loans given/borrowed has been estimated by considering the cash flows, future credit losses and the rate of prepayments for each loan. Projected annual cash flows were then discounted to present value based on a market rate for similar loans.
The allowance for loan losses, associated with the acquired loans, were evaluated by the management and recorded.
(d) Fair Valuation of Current Assets and Liabilities:
The current assets and liabilities are taken at fair value on the date of acquisition.
1.33 Cash Dividend to Equity Holders of the Company:
The Company recognises a liability to make cash distributions to equity holders of the Company when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in other equity.