Company Information

BSE Prices delayed by 5 minutes... << Prices as on Jan 23, 2020 >>  ABB India 1315.3 [0.77%]  ACC 1550.1 [1.69%]  Ambuja Cements Ltd. 213.75 [1.64%]  Asian Paints Ltd. 1775.3 [-0.17%]  Axis Bank Ltd. 722.8 [1.41%]  Bajaj Auto Ltd. 3064.6 [-0.41%]  Bank of Baroda 94.8 [0.58%]  Bharti Airtel 523.6 [1.80%]  Bharat Heavy Ele 43.45 [0.12%]  Bharat Petroleum 468.85 [2.96%]  Britannia Ind. 3111.4 [0.17%]  Cairn India Ltd. 285.4 [0.90%]  Cipla 464.8 [-1.47%]  Coal India 190.75 [-0.65%]  Colgate Palm. 1489.2 [0.76%]  Dabur India 489.75 [0.64%]  DLF Ltd. 260.7 [0.97%]  Dr. Reddy's Labs 3038.45 [-0.71%]  GAIL (India) Ltd. 129.6 [2.98%]  Grasim Inds. 810.25 [2.27%]  HCL Technologies 598.3 [1.35%]  HDFC 2426.15 [0.37%]  HDFC Bank 1245 [0.37%]  Hero MotoCorp 2430.3 [1.36%]  Hindustan Unilever L 2056.5 [0.26%]  Hindalco Indus. 204.5 [0.57%]  ICICI Bank 527.7 [0.90%]  IDFC L 37 [-3.65%]  Indian Hotels Co 143.75 [-0.38%]  IndusInd Bank 1332.15 [0.34%]  Infosys 784.55 [1.90%]  ITC Ltd. 237.9 [-0.02%]  Jindal St & Pwr 179.85 [0.53%]  Kotak Mahindra Bank 1606.25 [1.28%]  L&T 1332.8 [2.98%]  Lupin Ltd. 738.1 [-0.01%]  Mahi. & Mahi 566.55 [2.27%]  Maruti Suzuki India 7141.25 [0.07%]  MTNL 11.18 [-3.12%]  Nestle India 15554.65 [0.07%]  NIIT Ltd. 103.4 [4.39%]  NMDC Ltd. 133.05 [0.57%]  NTPC 113.6 [1.25%]  ONGC 117.75 [1.12%]  Punj. NationlBak 61.8 [1.39%]  Power Grid Corpo 201.25 [0.85%]  Reliance Inds. 1527 [-0.40%]  SBI 323.25 [2.26%]  Vedanta 154.15 [0.65%]  Shipping Corpn. 61.55 [1.07%]  Sun Pharma. 449.9 [0.82%]  Tata Chemicals 758.25 [1.24%]  Tata Global Beverage 393 [2.13%]  Tata Motors Ltd. 188.4 [1.54%]  Tata Steel 480.35 [1.17%]  Tata Power Co. 60.15 [1.69%]  Tata Consultancy 2193.45 [-0.59%]  Tech Mahindra Ltd. 768.85 [-1.19%]  UltraTech Cement 4529.4 [1.11%]  United Spirits 581.95 [-1.21%]  Wipro Ltd 248.75 [1.10%]  Zee Entertainment En 279.1 [-7.04%]  

MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.

ACCOUNTING POLICY

BSE

Jan 23 - Close
7141.25 +4.90 (+ 0.07 %)
Volume34003
Prev. Close 7136.35
Open Price 7136.35
Today's Low / High
7125.00
     
7220.00
Bid Price(Qty.) 0.00 (0)
Open Pr.(Qty.) 0.00 (0)
52 Wk Low / High
5447.00
     
7755.00

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.

Market Cap. ( ` in Cr. ) 215899.64 P/BV 4.58 Book Value ( ` ) 1,558.93
52 Week High/Low ( ` ) 7759/5446 FV/ML 5/1 P/E(X) 28.23
Book Closure 27/08/2019 EPS ( ` ) 253.21 Div Yield (%) 1.12
Year End :2019-03 

Notes to the Financial Statements

1 General Information

Maruti Suzuki India Limited ("The Company") is a public limited company incorporated and domiciled in India, listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE). The address of its registered office is #1, Nelson Mandela Road, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi -110070. The Company is a subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation, Japan. The principal activities of the Company are manufacturing, purchase and sale of motor vehicles, components and spare parts. The other activities of the Company comprise facilitation of pre-owned car sales, fleet management and car financing.

During the previous year, a Scheme of Amalgamation between the Company and its seven wholly owned subsidiaries, by the names of Maruti Insurance Business Agency Limited, Maruti Insurance Distribution Services Limited, Maruti Insurance Agency Network Limited, Maruti Insurance Agency Solutions Limited, Maruti Insurance Agency Services Limited, Maruti Insurance Agency Logistics Limited and Maruti Insurance Broker Limited became effective w.e.f. the appointed date, i.e., April 1, 2016 on completion of all required formalities on July 11, 2017 and approval of National Company Law Tribunal.

2 Significant Accounting Policies

2.1 Statement of compliance

The financial statements have been prepared as a going concern in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the Act") read with the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and other relevant provisions of the Act.

2.2 Basis of preparation and presentation

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost convention on accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies mentioned below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange of goods or services.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current according to the Company's operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Act. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

The principal accounting policies are set out below.

2.3 Going concern

The board of directors have considered the financial position of the Company as at March 31, 2019 and the projected cash flows and financial performance of the Company for at least twelve months from the date of approval of these financial statements as well as planned cost and cash improvement actions, and believe that the plan for sustained profitability remains on course.

The board of directors have taken actions to ensure that appropriate long-term cash resources are in place at the date of signing the accounts to fund the Company's operations.

2.4 Use of estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amount of assets, liabilities, income, expenses and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of these financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses for the years presented. Actual results may differ from the estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed at each balance sheet date. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimates are revised and future periods affected.

In particular, information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgements in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements are included in the following notes:

Note 32 : Provision for employee benefits

Provision for employee benefits requires that certain assumptions such as expected future salary increases, average life expectancy and discount rates etc. are made in order to determine the amount to be recorded for retirement benefit obligations. Substantial changes in the assumed development of any of these variables may significantly change the Company's retirement benefit obligations.

Note 17 & 38 : Provision for litigations

Income Tax: The Company's tax jurisdiction is India. Significant judgements are involved in determining the provision for income taxes including judgement on whether tax positions are probable of being sustained in tax assessments. A tax assessment can involve complex issues, which can only be resolved over extended time periods.

Other litigations: Litigations often involve complex legal/ regulatory issues and are connected with a high degree of uncertainty. Accordingly, the assessment of whether an obligation exists on the balance sheet date as a result of an event in the past, and whether a future cash outflow is likely and the obligation can be reliably estimated, largely depends on estimations by the management.

Note 17 : Provision for warranty and product recall

The Company creates provision based on historical warranty claim experience. In addition, assumptions on the amounts of potential costs are also included while creating the provisions. The provisions are regularly adjusted to reflect new information.

Note 4 : Property, Plant and Equipment - Useful economic life

Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset's expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company's assets are determined by the management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end.

2.5 Revenue recognition

Effective April 1, 2018, the Company adopted Ind AS 115 'Revenue from Contracts with Customers'. First time adoption has been conducted retrospectively with cumulative effect of initially applying this standard as on the transition date. The effect on the transition to Ind AS 115 is insignificant.

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Amounts disclosed as revenue are inclusive of excise duty (till 30th June, 2017) and net of returns, discounts, sales incentives, goods & service tax and value added taxes.

The Company recognises revenue when the amount of revenue and its related cost can be reliably measured and

it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and degree of managerial involvement associated with ownership or effective control have been met for each of the Company's activities as described below. The Company bases its estimates on historical results, taking into consideration the type of customer, the type of transactions and the specifics of each arrangement.

2.5.1 Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised for domestic and export sales of vehicles, spare parts, and accessories when the Company transfers control over such products to the customer on dispatch from the factory and the port respectively.

2.5.2 Income from services

Revenue from engineering services are recognised as the related services are performed. Revenue from extended warranty is recognised on time proportion basis. Income from other services are accounted over the period of rendering of services. Invoicing in excess of revenues are classified as contract liabilities. Contract liabilities pertains to advance consideration received towards sale of extended warranty and other services by the Company.

2.5.3 Income from royalty

Revenue from royalty is recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant arrangements.

2.6 Other Income

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholders' right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).

Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably.

2.7 Leasing

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

2.7.1 The Company as lessor

Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognised as receivables at the amount of the Company's net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company's net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.

Rental income from operating leases is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company's expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the period in which such benefits accrue.

2.7.2 The Company as lessee

Assets held under finance leases are initially recognised as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.

Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognised immediately in profit or loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalised in accordance with the Company's general policy on borrowing costs (see note 2.9 below).

Rental expense from operating leases is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor's expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the period in which such benefits accrue.

Upfront amount paid for land taken on lease is amortised over the period of lease.

2.8 Foreign currencies

2.8.1 Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates ('the functional currency'). The financial statements are presented in Indian rupee (Rs), which is the Company's functional and presentation currency.

2.8.2 Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are generally recognised in profit or loss. They are deferred in equity if they relate to qualifying cash flow hedges.

2.9 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.

Interest income earned on the temporary investment of surplus funds out of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets are deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

2.10 Employee benefits

2.10.1 Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled within the operating cycle after the end of the period in which the employees render the related services are recognised in the period in which the related services are rendered and are measured at the undiscounted amount expected to be paid.

2.10.2 Other long-term employee benefit obligations

Liabilities for leave encashment and compensated absences which are not expected to be settled wholly within the operating cycle after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period on Government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in profit or loss.

2.10.3 Post-employment obligations Defined benefit plans

The Company has defined benefit plans namely gratuity, provident fund and retirement allowance for employees. The gratuity fund and provident fund are recognised by the income tax authorities and are administered through trusts set up by the Company. Any shortfall in the size of the fund maintained by the trust is additionally provided for in profit or loss.

The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in profit or loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.

Defined contribution plans

The Company has defined contribution plans for post-employment benefit namely the superannuation fund which is recognised by the income tax authorities. This fund is administered through a trust set up by the Company and the Company's contribution thereto is charged to profit or loss every year. The Company has no further payment obligations once the contributions

have been paid. The Company also maintains an insurance policy to fund a post-employment medical assistance scheme, which is a defined contribution plan. The Company's contribution to State Plans namely Employees' State Insurance Fund and Employees' Pension Scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss every year.

Termination benefits

A liability for the termination benefit is recognised at the earlier of when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the Company recognises any related restructuring costs.

2.11 Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

2.11.1 Current tax

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from 'profit before tax' as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company's current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

2.11.2 Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profits. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences and incurred tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

2.11.3 Current and deferred tax for the year

Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the income taxes are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.

2.12 Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation less accumulated impairment, if any. Freehold land is measured at cost and is not depreciated.

Such assets are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognised when replaced. Other repairs and maintenance of revenue nature are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from continued use of asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of asset and recognised in profit or loss.

Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method on a pro-rata basis from the month in which each asset is put to use to allocate their cost, net of their residual values, over their estimated useful lives.

Estimated useful life of assets are as follows which is based on technical evaluation of the useful lives of the assets:

Building

3-60 years

Plant and machinery other than Dies and Jigs

8 years

Dies and jigs

5 years

Electronic data processing equipment

3 years

Furniture and fixtures

10 years

Office appliances

5 years

Vehicles

8 years

The assets' residual values, estimated useful lives and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.

All assets, the individual written down value of which at the beginning of the year is Rs. 5,000 or less, are depreciated at the rate of 100%. Assets purchased during the year costing Rs. 5,000 or less are depreciated at the rate of 100%.

Gains and losses on disposal are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount and are credited / debited to profit or loss.

Freehold land and Leasehold land in the nature of perpetual lease is not amortised.

2.13 Intangible assets

2.13.1 Intangible assets acquired separately

Lump sum royalty and engineering support fee is carried at cost which is incurred and stated in the relevant licence agreement with the technical knowhow / engineering support provider less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful lives and amortisation method are reviewed at end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

2.13.2 Amortisation methods and useful lives

Lump sum royalty and engineering support fee is amortised on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life i.e. 5 years from the start of production of the related model. An intangible asset is derecognised when no future economic benefits are expected from use.

2.14 Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any).

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

2.15 Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost, determined on the weighted average basis and net realisable value.

The cost of finished goods and work in progress comprises raw materials, direct labour, other direct costs and appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Machinery spares (other than those supplied along with main plant and machinery, which are capitalised and depreciated accordingly) are charged to profit or loss on consumption except those valued at Rs. 5,000 or less individually, which are charged to revenue in the year of purchase.

2.16 Provisions and contingencies

Provisions: Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of a past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and there is a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre tax rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

Contingent Liabilities: Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.

2.17 Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial instruments (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss. Subsequently, financial instruments are measured according to the category in which they are classified.

2.18 Financial assets

All purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.

All recognised financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortised cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets.

2.18.1 Classification of financial assets

Classification of financial assets depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition.

The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

• those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income, or through profit or loss), and

• those measured at amortised cost

The classification depends on the Company's business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.

A financial asset that meets the following two conditions is measured at amortised cost unless the asset is designated at fair value through profit or loss under the fair value option:

• Business model test: the objective of the Company's business model is to hold the financial asset to collect the contractual cash flows.

• Cash flow characteristic test : the contractual term of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A financial asset that meets the following two conditions is measured at fair value through other comprehensive income unless the asset is designated at fair value through profit or loss under the fair value option:

• business model test : the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting cash flows and selling financial assets.

• cash flow characteristic test: the contractual term of the financial asset gives rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

All other financial assets are measured at fair value through profit or loss.

2.18.2 Investments in equity instrument at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

On initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument by instrument basis) to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income pertaining to investments in equity instrument. This election is not permitted if the equity instrument is held for trading. These elected investments are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently, they are measured at fair value with gains / losses arising from changes in fair value recognised in other comprehensive income. This cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of the investments.

The Company has equity investments in certain entities which are not held for trading. The Company has elected the fair value through other comprehensive income irrevocable option for all such investments. Dividend on these investments are recognised in profit or loss.

2.18.3 Equity investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures

Investments representing equity interest in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are carried at cost less any provision for impairment. Investments are reviewed for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.

2.18.4 Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

Investment in equity instrument are classified at fair value through profit or loss, unless the Company irrevocably elects on initial recognition to present subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income for investments in equity instruments which are not held for trading.

Financial assets that do not meet the amortised cost criteria or fair value through other comprehensive income criteria are measured at fair value through profit or loss. A financial asset that meets the amortised cost criteria or fair value through other comprehensive income criteria may be designated as at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition if such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would arise from measuring assets and liabilities or recognising the gains or losses on them on different bases.

Investments in debt based mutual funds are measured at fair value through profit or loss.

Financial assets which are fair valued through profit or loss are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in profit or loss.

2.18.5 Trade receivables

Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost less provision for impairment.

2.18.6 Cash and cash equivalents

In the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, cheques and drafts in hand, balances with bank and deposits held at call with financial institutions, short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet and forms part of financing activities in the cash flow statement. Book overdraft are shown within other financial liabilities in the balance sheet and forms part of operating activities in the cash flow statement.

2.18.7 Impairment of financial assets

The Company assesses impairment based on expected credit losses (ECL) model to the following :

• financial assets measured at amortised cost

• financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

Expected credit loss are measured through a loss allowance at an amount equal to :

• the twelve month expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from those default events on the financial instruments that are possible within twelve months after the reporting date); or

• full life time expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the life of the financial instrument).

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

2.18.8 Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is derecognised only when

• The Company has transferred the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset or

• Retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients.

2.18.9 Foreign exchange gains and losses

The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the exchange rate at the end of each reporting period. For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortised cost or fair value through profit or loss the exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss except for those which are designated as hedge instrument in a hedging relationship. Further change in the carrying amount of investments in equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income relating to changes in foreign currency rates are recognised in other comprehensive income.

2.19 Financial liabilities and equity instruments

2.19.1 Classification of debt or equity

Debt or equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

2.19.2 Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

2.19.3 Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method or at fair value through profit or loss.

2.19.3.1 Trade and other payables

Trade and other payables represent liabilities for goods or services provided to the Company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid.

2.19.3.2 Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption amount is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest rate method.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in profit or loss.

2.19.3.3 Foreign exchange gains or losses

For financial liabilities that are denominated in a foreign currency and are measured at amortised cost at the end of each reporting period, the foreign exchange gains and losses are determined based on the amortised cost of the instruments and are recognised in profit or loss.

The fair value of financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the exchange rate at the end of the reporting period. For financial liabilities that are measured as at fair value through profit or loss, the foreign exchange component forms part of the fair value gains or losses and is recognised in profit or loss.

2.19.3.4 Derecognition of financial liabilities

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company's obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired.

2.20 Derivative financial instruments

The Company enters into foreign exchange forward contracts and certain other derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to foreign exchange rate risks and commodity price risks. Further details of derivative financial instruments are disclosed in note 33.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument which is recognised in other comprehensive income (net of tax) and presented as a separate component of equity which is later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss.

2.20.1 Embedded derivatives

Derivatives embedded in a host contract that is an asset within the scope of Ind AS 109 are not separated. Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are solely payment of principal and interest.

Derivatives embedded in all other host contract are separated only if the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host and are measured at fair value through profit or loss. Embedded derivatives closely related to the host contracts are not separated.

2.21 Hedge accounting

The Company designates certain hedging instruments, in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges or cash flow hedges. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.

At the inception of the hedge relationship, the entity documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an on-going basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

Changes in the fair value of these contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised in other comprehensive income (net of tax) and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the profit or loss. Amount accumulated in equity are reclassified to the profit or loss in the periods in which the forecasted transaction occurs.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecast transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in other equity is retained there until the forecast transaction occurs.

Note 33 sets out details of the fair values of the derivative instruments used for hedging purposes.

2.22 Offsetting Financial Instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or the counterparty.

2.23 Government Grant

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attaching to them and the grants will be received.

Government grants are recognised in statement of profit and loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises as expense the related cost for which the grants are intended to compensate.

2.24 Earning Per Share

Basic earning per share has been computed by dividing the net income by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earning per share has been computed using the weighted average number of shares and diluted potential shares, except where the result would be anti-dilutive.

2.25 Dividends

Final dividends on shares are recorded on the date of approval by the shareholders of the Company.

2.26 Royalty

The Company pays / accrues for royalty in accordance with the relevant licence agreements.

2.27 Business combinations

Acquisitions of subsidiaries and businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. Acquisition related costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred. The acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities that meet the conditions for recognition are recognized at their fair value at the acquisition date, except certain assets and liabilities that are required to be measured as per the applicable standard.

Purchase consideration in excess of the Company's interest in the acquiree's net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities is recognized as goodwill. Excess of the Company's interest in the net fair value of the acquiree's identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the purchase consideration is recognized, after reassessment of fair value of net assets acquired, in the Capital Reserve.

Common control

A business combination involving entities or businesses under common control is a business combination in which all of the combining entities or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party or parties both before and after the business combination and the control is not transitory.

Business combinations involving entities under common control are accounted for using the pooling of interests method. The net assets of the transferor entity or business are accounted at their carrying amounts on the date of the acquisition subject to necessary adjustments required to harmonise accounting policies. Any excess or shortfall of the consideration paid over the share capital of transferor entity or business is recognised as capital reserve under equity.

2.28 Rounding of amounts

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and the accompanying notes have been rounded off to the nearest million as per the requirement of Schedule III of the Companies Act 2013, unless otherwise stated.

3 Applicability Of New And Revised Ind AS

3.1 Ministry of Corporate affairs has notified Ind AS 116 - Leases, which is effective from April 1, 2019, which will replace the existing lease standard, Ind AS 17 Leases and related interpretations. The new standard sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of lease for both parties to a contract i.e. the lessee and the lessor. Ind AS 116 introduces a single lessee accounting model and requires a lessee to recognise assets and liabilities for all leases with a term of more than 12 months, unless the underlying asset is of low value. Currently, operating lease expenses are charged to the statement of profit and loss. The standard also contains enhanced disclosure requirements for lessees. Ind AS 116 substantially carries forward lessor accounting requirements. The Company is evaluating the impact of Ind AS 116 and its effect on the financial statements.

3.2 Appendix C to Ind AS 12, Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments: On March 30, 2019, Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA") has notified Appendix C to Ind AS 12, Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments which is to be applied while performing the determination of taxable profit (or loss), tax bases, unused tax losses, unused tax credits and tax rates, when there is uncertainty over income tax treatments under Ind AS 12. According to the appendix, companies need to determine the probability of the relevant tax authority accepting each tax treatment, or group of tax treatments, that the companies have used or plan to use in their income tax filing which has to be considered to compute the most likely amount or the expected value of the tax treatment when determining taxable profit (tax loss), tax bases, unused tax losses, unused tax credits and tax rates. The effective date for adoption of Ind AS 12 Appendix C is annual periods beginning on or after April 1, 2019. The Company is evaluating the requirements and its effect on the financial statements.

3.3 Amendments to Ind AS 12 - Income Taxes On March 30, 2019, Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued amendments to the guidance in Ind AS 12, 'Income Taxes', in connection with accounting for dividend distribution taxes.The amendment clarifies that an entity shall recognise the income tax consequences of dividends in profit or loss, other comprehensive income or equity according to where the entity originally recognised those past transactions or events. Effective date for application of this amendment is annual period beginning on or after April 1, 2019. The Company does not expect any impact from this pronouncement.

3.4 Amendment to Ind AS 19 - plan amendment, curtailment or settlement- On March 30, 2019, Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued amendments to Ind AS 19, 'Employee Benefits', in connection with accounting for plan amendments, curtailments and settlements. The amendments require an entity:

1) to use updated assumptions to determine current service cost and net interest for the remainder of the period after a plan amendment, curtailment or settlement; and

2) to recognise in profit or loss as part of past service cost, or a gain or loss on settlement, any reduction in a surplus, even if that surplus was not previously recognised because of the impact of the asset ceiling. Effective date for application of this amendment is annual period beginning on or after April 1, 2019. The Company does not have any impact on account of this amendment.

4 Property, Plant and Equipment and Capital Work-in-Progress

As at 31.03.2019

As at 31.03.2018

Carrying amount of

Freehold Land

38,419

31,403

Leasehold Land ^

525

525

Buildings

18,826

16,900

Plant & Machinery

88,296

78,439

Electronic Data Processing (EDP) Equipment

519

570

Furniture, Fixtures and Office Appliances

1,595

1,387

Vehicles

1,387

1,249

149,567

130,473

Capital work-in-progress

16,001

21,259

165,568

151,732

^ In the nature of perpetual lease