1) Significant accounting policies
(a) Statement of compliance
These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (referred to as “Ind AS”) as prescribed under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules as amended from time to time.
(b) Basis of preparation
These financial statements have been prepared in Indian Rupee (‘ which is the functional currency of the Company.
These financial statements have been prepared on historical cost basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value or amortised cost at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per the Company’s normal operating cycle. Based on the nature of services rendered to customers and time elapsed between deployment of resources and the realisation in cash and cash equivalents of the consideration for such services rendered, the Company has considered an operating cycle of 12 months.
The statement of cash flows have been prepared under indirect method.
(c) Use of estimates and judgements
The preparation of these financial statements in conformity with the recognition and measurement principles of Ind AS requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expense for the periods presented.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimates are revised and future periods are affected.
Key sources of estimation of uncertainty at the date of the financial statements, which may cause a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are in respect of impairment of investments, useful lives of property, plant and equipment, valuation of deferred tax assets and fair value measurement of financial instruments, these are discussed below. Key sources of estimation of uncertainty in respect of revenue recognition, employee benefits and provisions and contingent liabilities have been discussed in their respective policies.
Impairment of investments in subsidiaries
The Company reviews its carrying value of investments carried at amortised cost annually, or more frequently when there is indication for impairment. If the recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is accounted for.
Useful lives of property, plant and equipment
The Company reviews the useful life of property, plant and equipment at the end of each reporting period. This reassessment may result in change in depreciation expense in future periods.
Valuation of deferred tax assets
The Company reviews the carrying amount of deferred tax assets at the end of each reporting period. The policy has been explained under note 2(i).
Fair value measurement of financial instruments
When the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the Discounted Cash Flow model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgement is required in establishing fair values. Judgements include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments. The policy has been further explained under note 2(j).
(d) Revenue recognition
The Company earns revenue primarily from providing IT services, consulting and business solutions. The Company offers a consulting-led, cognitive powered, integrated portfolio of IT, business and engineering services and solutions.
Effective April 1, 2018, the Company has applied Ind AS 115 which establishes a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much and when revenue is to be recognised. Ind AS 115 replaces Ind AS 18 Revenue and Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts. The Company has adopted Ind AS 115 using the cumulative effect method. The effect of initially applying this standard is recognised at the date of initial application (i.e. April 1, 2018). The standard is applied retrospectively only to contracts that are not completed as at the date of initial application and the comparative information in the statement of profit and loss is not restated - i.e. the comparative information continues to be reported under Ind AS 18 and Ind AS 11. Refer note 2(d) -Significant accounting policies - Revenue recognition in the Annual report of the Company for the year ended March 31, 2018, for the revenue recognition policy as per Ind AS 18 and Ind AS 11. The impact of the adoption of the standard on the financial statements of the Company is insignificant.
Revenue is recognised upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services.
- Revenue from time and material and job contracts is recognised on output basis measured by units delivered, efforts expended, number of transactions processed, etc.
- Revenue related to fixed price maintenance and support services contracts where the Company is standing ready to provide services is recognised based on time elapsed mode and revenue is straight lined over the period of performance.
- In respect of other fixed-price contracts, revenue is recognised using percentage-of-completion method (‘POC method’) of accounting with contract costs incurred determining the degree of completion of the performance obligation. The contract costs used in computing the revenues include cost of fulfilling warranty obligations.
- Revenue from the sale of distinct internally developed software and manufactured systems and third party software is recognised upfront at the point in time when the system / software is delivered to the customer. In cases where implementation and / or customisation services rendered significantly modifies or customises the software, these services and software are accounted for as a single performance obligation and revenue is recognised over time on a POC method.
- Revenue from the sale of distinct third party hardware is recognised at the point in time when control is transferred to the customer.
- The solutions offered by the Company may include supply of third-party equipment or software. In such cases, revenue for supply of such third party products are recorded at gross or net basis depending on whether the Company is acting as the principal or as an agent of the customer. The Company recognises revenue in the gross amount of consideration when it is acting as a principal and at net amount of consideration when it is acting as an agent.
Revenue is measured based on the transaction price, which is the consideration, adjusted for volume discounts, service level credits, performance bonuses, price concessions and incentives, if any, as specified in the contract with the customer. Revenue also excludes taxes collected from customers.
Revenue from subsidiaries is recognised based on transaction price which is at arm’s length.
Contract assets are recognised when there is excess of revenue earned over billings on contracts. Contract assets are classified as unbilled receivables (only act of invoicing is pending) when there is unconditional right to receive cash, and only passage of time is required, as per contractual terms.
Unearned and deferred revenue (“contract liability”) is recognised when there is billings in excess of revenues.
The billing schedules agreed with customers include periodic performance based payments and / or milestone based progress payments. Invoices are payable within contractually agreed credit period.
In accordance with Ind AS 37, the Company recognises an onerous contract provision when the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under a contract exceed the economic benefits to be received.
Contracts are subject to modification to account for changes in contract specification and requirements. The Company reviews modification to contract in conjunction with the original contract, basis which the transaction price could be allocated to a new performance obligation, or transaction price of an existing obligation could undergo a change. In the event transaction price is revised for existing obligation, a cumulative adjustment is accounted for.
The Company disaggregates revenue from contracts with customers by industry verticals, geography and nature of services.
Use of significant judgements in revenue recognition
- The Company’s contracts with customers could include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. The Company assesses the products / services promised in a contract and identifies distinct performance obligations in the contract. Identification of distinct performance obligation involves judgement to determine the deliverables and the ability of the customer to benefit independently from such deliverables.
- Judgement is also required to determine the transaction price for the contract. The transaction price could be either a fixed amount of customer consideration or variable consideration with elements such as volume discounts, service level credits, performance bonuses, price concessions and incentives. The transaction price is also adjusted for the effects of the time value of money if the contract includes a significant financing component. Any consideration payable to the customer is adjusted to the transaction price, unless it is a payment for a distinct product or service from the customer. The estimated amount of variable consideration is adjusted in the transaction price only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur and is reassessed at the end of each reporting period. The Company allocates the elements of variable considerations to all the performance obligations of the contract unless there is observable evidence that they pertain to one or more distinct performance obligations.
- The Company uses judgement to determine an appropriate standalone selling price for a performance obligation. The Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation on the basis of the relative standalone selling price of each distinct product or service promised in the contract. Where standalone selling price is not observable, the Company uses the expected cost plus margin approach to allocate the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation.
- The Company exercises judgement in determining whether the performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time or over a period of time. The Company considers indicators such as how customer consumes benefits as services are rendered or who controls the asset as it is being created or existence of enforceable right to payment for performance to date and alternate use of such product or service, transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer, acceptance of delivery by the customer, etc.
- Revenue for fixed-price contract is recognised using percentage-of-completion method. The Company uses judgement to estimate the future cost-to-completion of the contracts which is used to determine the degree of completion of the performance obligation.
- Contract fulfilment costs are generally expensed as incurred except for certain software licence costs which meet the criteria for capitalisation. Such costs are amortised over the contractual period or useful life of licence whichever is less. The assessment of this criteria requires the application of judgement, in particular when considering if costs generate or enhance resources to be used to satisfy future performance obligations and whether costs are expected to be recovered.
(e) Dividend income is recorded when the right to receive payment is established. Interest income is recognised using the effective interest method.
(f) Leases Finance lease
Assets taken on lease by the Company in its capacity as lessee, where the Company has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance lease. Such leases are capitalised at the inception of the lease at lower of the fair value or the present value of the minimum lease payments and a liability is recognised for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each year.
Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor, are recognised as operating lease. Operating lease payments are recognised on a straight line basis over the lease term in the statement of profit and loss, unless the lease agreement explicitly states that increase is on account of inflation.
(g) Cost recognition
Costs and expenses are recognised when incurred and have been classified according to their nature.
The costs of the Company are broadly categorised in employee benefit expenses, cost of equipment and software licences, depreciation and amortisation expense and other expenses. Employee benefit expenses include salaries, incentives and allowances, contributions to provident and other funds and staff welfare expenses. Other expenses mainly include fees to external consultants, facility expenses, travel expenses, communication expenses, bad debts and advances written off, allowance for doubtful trade receivable and advances (net) and other expenses. Other expenses is an aggregation of costs which are individually not material such as commission and brokerage, recruitment and training, entertainment, etc.
(h) Foreign currency
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are retranslated at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date and exchange gains and losses arising on settlement and restatement are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currencies are not retranslated.
(i) Income taxes
Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability during the year. Current and deferred taxes are recognised in statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.
Current income taxes
The current income tax expense includes income taxes payable by the Company and its branches in India and overseas. The current tax payable by the Company in India is Indian income tax payable on worldwide income after taking credit for tax relief available for export operations in Special Economic Zones (SEZs).
Current income tax payable by overseas branches of the Company is computed in accordance with the tax laws applicable in the jurisdiction in which the respective branch operates. The taxes paid are generally available for set off against the Indian income tax liability of the Company’s worldwide income.
Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the balance sheet after off-setting advance tax paid and income tax provision arising in the same tax jurisdiction and where the relevant tax paying unit intends to settle the asset and liability on a net basis.
Deferred income taxes
Deferred income tax is recognised using the balance sheet approach. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognised for deductible and taxable temporary differences arising between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount, except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction.
Deferred income tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.
The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilised.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using substantively enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to be received or settled.
For operations carried out in SEZs, deferred tax assets or liabilities, if any, have been established for the tax consequences of those temporary differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases that reverse after the tax holiday ends.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the relevant entity intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
Deferred tax assets include Minimum Alternative Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, to the extent it would be available for set off against future current income tax liability. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as deferred tax asset in the balance sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realised.
(j) Financial instruments
Financial assets and liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets and liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset or financial liability.
The Company derecognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another entity. The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired.
Cash and cash equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.
Financial assets at amortised cost
Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost if these financial assets are held within a business whose objective is to hold these assets to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial assets give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income
Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if these financial assets are held within a business whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows on specified dates that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding and selling financial assets.
The Company has made an irrevocable election to present subsequent changes in the fair value of equity investments not held for trading in other comprehensive income.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Financial assets are measured at fair value through profit or loss unless they are measured at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income on initial recognition. The transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are immediately recognised in statement of profit and loss.
Financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
An equity instrument is a contract that evidences residual interest in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received net of direct issue cost.
The Company designates certain foreign exchange forward, currency options and futures contracts as hedge instruments in respect of foreign exchange risks. These hedges are accounted for as cash flow hedges.
The Company uses hedging instruments that are governed by the policies of the Company which are approved by the Board of Directors. The policies provide written principles on the use of such financial derivatives consistent with the risk management strategy of the Company.
The hedge instruments are designated and documented as hedges at the inception of the contract. The Company determines the existence of an economic relationship between the hedging instrument and hedged item based on the currency, amount and timing of their respective cash flows. The effectiveness of hedge instruments to reduce the risk associated with the exposure being hedged is assessed and measured at inception and on an ongoing basis. If the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, then the amounts that have been accumulated in other equity are immediately reclassified in net foreign exchange gains in the statement of profit and loss.
The effective portion of change in the fair value of the designated hedging instrument is recognised in the other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading cash flow hedging reserve.
The Company separates the intrinsic value and time value of an option and designates as hedging instruments only the change in intrinsic value of the option. The change in fair value of the time value and intrinsic value of an option is recognised in the statement of other comprehensive income and accounted as a separate component of equity. Such amounts are reclassified into the statement of profit and loss when the related hedged items affect profit or loss.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity till that time remains and is recognised in statement of profit and loss when the forecasted transaction ultimately affects the profit or loss.
(k) Provisions and contingent liabilities
A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.
Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.
(l) Investment in subsidiaries
Investment in subsidiaries are measured at cost less impairment loss, if any.
(m) Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost comprising of purchase price and any initial directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use, less accumulated depreciation (other than freehold land) and impairment loss, if any.
Depreciation is provided for property, plant and equipment on a straight line basis so as to expense the cost less residual value over their estimated useful lives based on a technical evaluation. The estimated useful lives and residual value are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any change in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
The estimated useful lives are as mentioned below:
Assets held under finance lease are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.
Depreciation is not recorded on capital work-in-progress until construction and installation is complete and the asset is ready for its intended use.
(n) Intangible assets
Intangible assets purchased are measured at cost as of the date of acquisition, as applicable, less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment, if any.
Intangible assets consist of rights under licensing agreement and software licences which are amortised over licence period which equates the useful life ranging between 2-5 years on a straight line basis over the period of its economic useful life.
(i) Financial assets (other than at fair value)
The Company assesses at each date of balance sheet whether a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. Ind AS 109 requires expected credit losses to be measured through a loss allowance. In determining the allowances for doubtful trade receivables, the Company has used a practical expedient by computing the expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables based on a provision matrix. The provision matrix takes into account historical credit loss experience and is adjusted for forward looking information. The expected credit loss allowance is based on the ageing of the receivables that are due and allowance rates used in the provision matrix. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-months expected credit losses or at an amount equal to the life time expected credit losses if the credit risk on the financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition.
(ii) Non-financial assets Tangible and intangible assets
Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with finite life are evaluated for recoverability whenever there is any indication that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount (i.e. higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the Cash Generating Unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or CGU) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or CGU) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
(p) Employee benefits
(i) Defined benefit plans
For defined benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Past service cost, both vested and unvested, is recognised as an expense at the earlier of (a) when the plan amendment or curtailment occurs; and (b) when the entity recognises related restructuring costs or termination benefits.
The retirement benefit obligations recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligations reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.
(ii) Defined contribution plans
Contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to such benefits.
(iii) Short-term employee benefits
All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages etc. and the expected cost of ex-gratia are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid when there is a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
(iv) Compensated absences
Compensated absences which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as undiscounted liability at the balance sheet date. Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as an actuarially determined liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date.
Inventories consists of (a) Raw materials, sub-assemblies and components, (b) Work-in-progress, (c) Stores and spare parts and (d) Finished goods. Inventories are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of raw materials, sub-assemblies and components is determined on a weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods produced or purchased by the Company includes direct material and labour cost and a proportion of manufacturing overheads.
(r) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The Company did not have any potentially dilutive securities in any of the years presented.